How to prevent fire in chemical dangerous places

2022-08-15
  • Detail

How to prevent fire in chemical dangerous places

(I) heating, impact, friction, open fire are easy to cause fire

(II) compressed gas and liquefied gas are very easy to cause cylinder rupture accidents under the conditions of cylinder quality defects, long-term use, reduced pressure strength, safety accessories failure, etc

(III) prone to spontaneous combustion

(IV) mixed storage and release cause fire or explosion

II. Fire risk of hazardous chemicals production sites

(I) fire risk classification of hazardous chemicals production

fire risk classification of production is based on the fire risk of substances used or produced in the production process, which is also divided into five categories: A, B, C, D and E

(II) fire risk of materials

1. Fire risk of materials themselves

almost all raw materials, semi-finished products or finished products in the production site of dangerous chemicals are gaseous, liquid or solid with relatively active chemical properties, such as hydrocarbons, nitrates and other flammable and explosive dangerous goods. Most of the catalysts used in the reaction, oxidants and reductants of oxidation reaction are extremely unstable active substances, These substances present greater fire risk

2. Fire risk during transportation

liquid materials in hazardous chemicals can generate static electricity when flowing in the pipeline. If the flow rate of materials is too fast or splashing occurs during operation, it is easy to accelerate the generation of static charges. If the electrostatic charge cannot be discharged in time, the accumulation and discharge of electrostatic charge is easy to cause electrostatic fire or explosion accidents

due to the aging of equipment parts, the corrosion of gas and liquid, or human misoperation, it is easy to cause the escape, emission, dripping and leakage of materials. The leaked combustible gas or liquid vapor forms a combustible system with air, which may lead to fire under the action of external fire sources

(III) fire risk of production devices

there are many equipment and complex structures in the production site. For example, in the tower distillation tower of petrochemical plant, the temperature of the equipment is extremely difficult to control, and the ignition source is very easy to contact with combustible materials. Once the equipment breaks, the materials leak or overflow, it will be immediately ignited to disaster; Various pipelines conveying materials are prone to rupture, leakage and blockage; The heat exchange equipment is prone to blockage, leakage and reduction of heat transfer efficiency, resulting in explosion of equipment pressurization

(IV) fire risk during operation

1. The reaction process is not strictly controlled, resulting in overheating and high pressure. In most chemical production, it is necessary to lift the pendulum to the pre lifting angle position and lock it at a certain temperature and pressure. Generally, the reaction rate increases with the increase of temperature; For exothermic reaction, the faster the reaction speed is, the more heat is released per unit time, and the faster the temperature rise is, and the more intense the reaction is. At this time, if the temperature cannot be controlled in time, the material will vaporize rapidly, boil over and even produce side reactions to produce sensitive tearing. The direction of the cutting should be the same as that of the inductive substance in the rolling direction 1, so as to cause spontaneous combustion or pressurized explosion. Meanwhile, in the process of chemical reaction, overpressure accidents can be caused by too fast pressure rise, too high pressure control, out of control temperature, too much feeding, and high-pressure media channeling into low-pressure containers. If handled improperly, it will increase the possibility of fire and explosion

2. Reactive materials are easy to leak and form explosive mixtures

welding joints, interfaces, hole covers, valves and flanges of pipelines and vulnerable parts on equipment are all weak links that lead to leakage accidents. In the production process, when combustible gas, steam or dust leaks into the atmosphere from these parts or air enters the equipment, if its concentration is within the explosion limit, fire and explosion accidents will occur in case of fire source. In particular, the reactive substances in the reaction process generally have a certain temperature. Once they are exposed to air, they will meet the conditions of combustion and explosion, leading to fire accidents

3. Human misoperation

there are many fires caused by misoperation, involving people, machines, reactions and other aspects. For example, people are not familiar with operating equipment components, resulting in misuse; Improper control of temperature, pressure, feeding speed, feeding ratio, feeding sequence and material purity indicators during operation, resulting in errors; Jinan Shijin is a well-known brand in the country. Now, Jinan Shijin special offers activities with consultation and preferential delivery. Among them, Dove chocolate has moths. If the agent violates the safety operation regulations, it will increase the risk of fire and explosion, especially for the exothermic reaction with high calorific value, explosive reaction, and the process operation in which explosive substances (or mixtures) or toxic substances are generated in the reaction, the requirements for personnel are very strict

Copyright © 2011 JIN SHI